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Euripides – Lioness at Large


(480 – 406 B.C.)

EuripidesBiographical Sketch

Euripides (Greek: Εὐριπίδης; Salamís, Greece, c. 480 – Macedonia (?), 406 BC) was one of the three great tragedians of classical Athens, the other two being Aischylos and Sophocles. Some ancient scholars attributed ninety-five plays to him but according to the Suda it was ninety-two at most. Of these, eighteen or nineteen have survived complete (there has been debate about his authorship of Rhesus, largely on stylistic grounds) and there are also fragments, some substantial, of most of the other plays. More of his plays have survived intact than those of Aischylos and Sophocles together, partly due to mere chance and partly because his popularity grew as theirs declined – he became, in the Hellenistic Age, a cornerstone of ancient literary education, along with Homer, Demosthenes and Menander.

Euripides is identified with theatrical innovations that have profoundly influenced drama down to modern times, especially in the representation of traditional, mythical heroes as ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances. This new approach led him to pioneer developments that later writers adapted to comedy, some of which are characteristic of romance. Yet he also became the most tragic of poets, focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters in a way previously unknown. He was the progenitor of plays such as Shakespeare’s Othello, Racine’s Phèdre, of Ibsen and Strindberg, in which emotionally imprisoned men and women destroy each other by the intensity of their loves and hates, and yet he was also the literary ancestor of comic dramatists as diverse as Menander and George Bernard Shaw.

He was also unique among the writers of ancient Athens for the sympathy he demonstrated towards all victims of society, including women. His conservative male audiences were frequently shocked by the ‘heresies’ he put into the mouths of characters, such as these words of his heroine Medea:

“Sooner would I stand
Three times to face their battles, shield in hand,
Than bear one child!”

His contemporaries associated him with Socrates as a leader of a decadent intellectualism, both of them being frequently lampooned by comic poets such as Aristophanes. Whereas Socrates was eventually put on trial and executed as a corrupting influence, Euripides chose a voluntary exile in old age, dying in Macedonia. Recent scholarship casts doubt on ancient biographies of Euripides. For example, it is possible that he never visited Macedonia at all, or, if he did, he might have been drawn there by King Archelaus with incentives that were also offered to other artists.

Read more about Euripides on Wikipedia.



  • Rhesos (450 B.C.)
  • Alkestis (438 B.C.)
  • Medeia (431 B.C.)
  • Herakleidai (429 B.C.)
    (The Heracleidae, The Heraclidae, The Children of Hercules)
  • Hippolutos (428 B.C.)
    (Hippolytus, Hippolytos)
  • Andromakhe (428 – 424 B.C.)
  • Hekabe (424 B.C.)
  • Hiketides (422 B.C.)
    (The Suppliants, The Suppliant Women)
  • Herakles Mainomenos (421 – 416 B.C.)
    ([The Madness of] Heracles/Hercules)
  • Elektra (420 – 410 B.C.)
  • Troiades (415 B.C.)
    (The Trojan Women)
  • Ion (414 – 412 B.C.)
  • Iphigeneia he en Taurois (414 – 412 B.C.)
    (Iphigenia in Tauris, Iphigenia among the Taurians)
  • Helene (412 B.C.)
  • Phoinissai (411 – 409 B.C.)
    (The Phoenissae, The Phoenician Women)
  • Bakkhai (410 B.C.)
    (The Bacchantes, The Bacchae)
  • Iphigeneia he en Aulidi (410 B.C.)
    (Iphigenia at/in Aulis)
  • Kuklops (408 B.C.)
    (The Cyclops)
  • Orestes (408 B.C.)
Online editions of Euripides’s works:


A Selection of Quotes

The Children of Herakles

“In case of dissension, never dare to judge till you’ve heard the other side.”


“When one with honeyed words but evil mind
Persuades the mob, great woes befall the state.”

The Bacchae

“Remember this! No amount of Bacchic reveling can corrupt an honest woman.”

“Talk sense to a fool and he calls you foolish.”

“Cleverness is not wisdom.”

“Do not mistake the rule of force for true power. Men are not shaped by force.”

The Phoenician Women

“This is slavery, not to speak one’s thought.”

Find more quotes by Euripides on Wikiquote and Goodreads.